[ti:New Shipping Rules Aim to Reduce Air Pollution, But Could Harm Seas] [by:www.knnrug.live] [00:00.00]更多聽力請訪問51VOA.COM [00:02.32]New shipping rules aimed at reducing air pollution will take effect in January 2020. [00:11.44]The rules, put in place by the International Maritime Organization, or IMO, [00:19.33]will change the kind of fuel that ships can use. [00:24.15]Ships, for the most part, will no longer be able to use fuels with a sulfur content above 0.5 percent. [00:36.44]Current rules permit a sulfur content of around 3.5 percent. [00:43.84]The IMO's stated goal is to reduce air pollution. [00:48.73]However, experts and civil society leaders warn that the rules could have a bad side effect. [00:59.20]Ship crews might dump more sulfur and nitrates into the ocean. [01:05.88]After January 2020, ships will still be able to use higher-sulfur fuel [01:13.75]if they have pollution cleaning devices called scrubbers. [01:19.52]There are two kinds of scrubbers: open-loop scrubbers and closed-loop scrubbers. [01:28.28]Open-loop scrubbers use water to remove sulfur [01:33.05]coming through a ship's smokestack and pump the waste into the sea. [01:40.56]Closed-loop scrubbers keep most of the water used [01:44.84]in the cleaning process on the ship for disposal later at a port. [01:51.36]A few countries will ban the use of open-loop scrubbers. [01:56.36]Singapore and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates are two examples. [02:02.72]China is also set to extend a ban on scrubber discharge to coastal areas. [02:10.68]"Were open-looped scrubbers ever a really good idea?" [02:14.58]Bill Hemmings of the Clean Shipping Coalition asked industry figures [02:20.69]at the IMO's headquarters in London. [02:24.96]Years of studies have examined whether open-loop scrubbers [02:29.90]hurt human and marine life by putting dangerous chemicals into the water. [02:37.00]The results, so far, have not been clear. [02:41.43]The IMO has supported further study into the environmental impact of scrubbers. [02:50.60]"It's a bit of a blind spot, and the optics of it are not great," [02:56.08]said Alan Gelder to the Reuters news agency. [03:00.84]Gelder is vice president of refining at consulting company Wood Mackenzie [03:07.00]"Though some studies suggest the impact of open-loop scrubbing [03:12.13]is going to be very small given the great volume of seas, [03:16.97]which already contain many sulphates, what it's doing is solving air pollution [03:23.00]by producing a marine pollutant instead." [03:28.28]The stated aim of the new rules is to improve human health. [03:33.72]A study last year said that ship pollution with current sulfur levels [03:39.56]caused about 400,000 premature deaths from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. [03:48.28]The study, which appeared in the journal Nature, also said the pollution [03:54.36]caused about 14 million cases of childhood asthma every year. [04:01.16]After 2020, experts think those numbers will fall [04:06.30]to about 250,000 and 6.4 million, respectively. [04:14.24]Some people, however, are still doubtful of the new rules. [04:20.20]One oil trader told the Reuters news agency [04:24.57]that the "huge changes" might not be as helpful as some might think. [04:31.64]"In the end you can still buy a piece of kit [04:35.04]that just dumps it [pollution] in the water," he said. [04:39.36]I'm John Russell. 更多聽力請訪問51VOA.COM 11运夺金走势图遗漏